The presence of foreign troops in Kazakhstan could fuel further public resentment in the country.
The rallies have now broadened to encompass more political demands.
Vladimir Putin sees Russia as a civilizational state and has toyed with the idea of Kazakhstan being part of greater Russia.
A visit by U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo underscored how Washington sees the region defined by its own rivals.
Rallies began as talk circulated about plans to build dozens of factories.